Headaches can basically be divided into two classes: primary headaches and secondary headaches. Migraine and tension-type headaches are in the primary headache group, while headaches due to more serious problems such as head-neck trauma and intracranial diseases are in the secondary headache group. The most common type of primary headache is tension-type headache. In tension-type headaches, the pain is usually mild or moderate and is felt as pressure (squeezing) on both sides of the head. Migraine, on the other hand, is the most common reason for consulting a doctor among all types of headache. In migraine, the pain comes in attacks, usually unilateral and throbbing. If the headache is sudden and severe, accompanied by a change in consciousness and drowsiness, emergency services should be consulted.
Toothache is usually a severe pain that is felt inside the tooth, in the jaw and at certain points on the face, which decreases the quality of life of the person, usually as a result of some problems occurring in the tooth. Toothache can have many causes. Dental caries, gum diseases, traumas can be counted among them. Tooth decay caused by inadequate oral care is the most common cause of toothache. When a toothache starts, a dentist should be consulted as soon as possible.
Low back pain
Low back pain is a common problem. One in four adults has complained of low back pain for at least one day in the last three months. Pain that has been present for less than 6 weeks is called acute low back pain, while pain that has been present for more than 3 months is called chronic low back pain. Low back pain can occur in cases such as poor posture, heavy lifting, osteoporosis, hereditary diseases. Pain in the lumbar region, limitation of movement, numbness in the leg may be among the symptoms. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle relaxants can be used in the treatment.
Fibromyalgia is a rheumatic disease of the musculoskeletal system characterized by pain that spreads throughout the body. Although it can be seen at all ages, it is most common in middle age. Women suffer from this disease more often than men. A close examination of the symptoms, conditions that may cause the disease, diagnosis and treatment of the disease will help us better understand fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia Symptoms The symptoms of fibromyalgia can vary from person to person. The most common symptoms are:Widespread pain: This is the main symptom of fibromyalgia. Pain is felt throughout the body and may be concentrated in areas such as the back and neck. The pain may persist for a long time and may get better or worse over time. The pain may be burning, sharp, stabbing.Hypersensitivity: In fibromyalgia, sensitivity to pain increases. The patient may feel pain even at the slightest touch. The duration of the pain may be prolonged with small touches and slight bumps.Rigidity: Patients feel stiff and have difficulty moving, especially after being in the same position for a long time. For example, they may have problems getting out of bed after waking up in the morning.Muscle cramps: Muscles may contract tightly and painfully, causing pain.Fatigue: The level of fatigue can vary from person to person. It can range from mild weakness to feeling too tired to do anything.Deterioration of sleep quality: Patients may not feel rested and relaxed even if they sleep for a sufficient amount of time. The reason for this is that the part called deep sleep, which allows the body to renew itself, is shortened in fibromyalgia patients. This change in sleep quality can manifest itself as fatigue and distraction.Cognitive problems: People with fibromyalgia may experience problems in processes such as thinking and learning. Patients may have a mind that can be described as hazy or fuzzy. Some symptoms such as difficulty in learning new events and remembering old events, inability to focus, slowed speech may occur.Feeling too hot or too cold: This is caused by the body's inability to regulate the appropriate temperature.
Neuropathic pain is pain caused by a lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system. Neuropathic pain is caused by uncontrolled electrical discharges from the area following damage to the nerve cell. Over time, structural changes in the nerve cell sheath make the pain permanent. Neuropathic pain is a symptom associated with different diseases. The findings that characterize neuropathic pain are different and often more than one symptom is combined. Patients describe neuropathic pain as burning, freezing, tingling, stinging, shooting, stabbing, stinging, electric shock. It is seen in 1-2% of the population. The most common cause of neuropathic pain is diabetes. It is divided into two as central and peripheral neuropathic pain. Decreased sense of touch, feeling less pain, decreased stimulus response, tingling sensation, feeling too much pain, pain due to stimuli that do not normally cause pain, abnormally painful response to stimuli, disturbing abnormal sensory findings suggest neuropathic pain.Neuropathic pain has social, psychological, physical and emotional effects on our lives. Long-term pain leads to sleep disturbance, disruption of social life, depression and tension. Pain sensation, pain intensity and the degree of pain perception may vary according to the individual. In order to apply a more effective treatment for neuropathic pain, the underlying cause of neuropathic pain should be investigated. Neuropathic pain treatment aims to reduce the patient's complaints, treatment of the underlying cause is important in the treatment and treatment of neuropathic pain. For example, in a patient with diabetes; high blood sugar disrupts the nutrition of nerves and causes neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain treatment is multifaceted, there are various medications and interventional treatment alternatives in drug-refractory patients. Epilepsy medications, depression medications, specific muscle relaxants, morphine-derived drugs, local anesthetics can be used in treatment.In patients who do not respond to drug treatment or who cannot use drug treatment for various reasons, the nerve can be blocked by interventional methods.
UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS
TONSİLİT / TONSİLOFARENJİT
Acute tonsillopharyngitis, or tonsillitis with its more common clinical picture in childhood, is an inflammation of the pharynx and tonsil tissue and is one of the most common causes of medical admissions. While the causative agent in adults is 5-10% bacteria, this rate increases to 30-40% in children. It is frequently seen between the ages of 5-15. It is more common in winter months. Patients most commonly present to the physician with complaints of sore throat and fever. Treatment is planned depending on the cause of infection.
Sinusitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the sinuses located around the nose. The frequency of sinusitis increases in winter months. Upper respiratory tract infections, which become more frequent during these periods, are among the most common causes of sinusitis. Sinusitis is a disease that affects the quality of life and has negative physical and psychological effects. Therefore, it must be treated.
Otitis Media (OM) is an infection and inflammation of the mucosa lining the middle ear, the airy cavities of the temporal bone and the eustachia. It is more common in children than in adults. It can be caused by bacteria or viruses. Ear pain and elevated body temperature may be among the symptoms. Treatment is planned according to age and the condition of the infection.
LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS
Bronchitis is an inflammation of the trachea, called the bronchi. Causes of bronchitis include infectious diseases caused by viruses and bacteria, as well as smoking, asthma and various allergies. Bronchitis, which manifests itself especially during seasonal transitions and in the winter months, is divided into acute and chronic bronchitis. Acute bronchitis is mostly caused by viruses. Cough, wheezing and shortness of breath may be observed. It is expected to recover in a few weeks. Smoking is an important factor in the development of chronic bronchitis. A history of expectoration with cough and shortness of breath is frequently observed. While shortness of breath initially increases with exertion, it is also observed at rest in advanced chronic bronchitis. For the diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, a history of cough and expectoration must be present for two consecutive years and for at least 3 months each year.
It is an inflammation of the lung parenchyma tissue. It is commonly known as pneumonia. It is often caused by bacteria and viruses, and more rarely by fungi in people with weakened immune systems. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common pathogen among bacteria. It can be severe in children and the elderly. The most prominent symptoms are high fever, cough, shortness of breath, chills, weakness and chest pain. Treatment is planned depending on the cause of infection.
Diabetes mellitus, popularly known as diabetes mellitus, is a chronic disease characterized by elevated glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream as a result of a deficiency and/or decreased action of the hormone insulin. The term diabetes means filtering, straining and was first used in Anatolia by the Cappodocian physician Arateus. Mellitus means sweet as honey. Diabetes treatment methods vary according to the type of diabetes, but the cornerstone of treatment is lifestyle changes such as healthy nutrition, regular physical activity, smoking cessation and limiting alcohol consumption. The other elements of the treatment are the group of drugs taken by mouth and called Oral Antidiabetics and Insulin and insulin analogs administered by injection (needle).
Asthma is a disease characterized by shortness of breath, wheezing and coughing that occurs in seizures. The main feature of asthma is airway narrowing that restricts airflow. The average incidence is around 15%. Drugs used in the treatment of asthma are classified into two groups. The first group includes drugs that relieve the patient and are used during an asthma attack. The second group includes drugs that control the disease by treating it in the long term.
WOMEN'S HEALTH AND DISEASES
When the balance between the microorganisms in the vaginal flora is disrupted, one or more of the microorganisms in the flora multiply and become dominant in the flora and cause infections. In vaginal infections, the amount, color and odor of vaginal secretion changes. The most common cause of vaginitis is fungal infections. 75% of women have at least one fungal infection in their lifetime. The fungus called Candida albicans is one of the microorganisms in the vaginal flora. When these fungi multiply uncontrollably, they cause vaginal infections and complaints. The most common complaint is severe itching and burning in the genital area. The diagnosis of this infection, which causes a white cheesy, milk curd-like discharge, is made by seeing fungi in the discharge sample. These infections can be treated with antifungal cream, tablets or vaginal ovules.
HEART AND VESSEL DISEASES
The heart pumps the blood needed by the tissues through the arteries. The force of the blood in the arteries on the vessel wall is called blood pressure (blood pressure). The condition in which blood pressure is high enough to damage cells is called hypertension, i.e. high blood pressure. In the treatment of hypertension, first of all, if an underlying disease that will cause hypertension is detected in the diagnosis stage, this disease should be treated. Patients with no underlying disease and high blood pressure are primarily recommended lifestyle changes. Lifestyle changes include a healthy diet, restriction in salt consumption, regular physical activity, quitting smoking, limiting alcohol consumption, and losing weight if overweight. Patients who still have high blood pressure despite following these recommendations are started on medication. Hypertension patients should be checked at regular intervals.
ATEROSKLEROZ (DAMAR SETLİĞİ)
Atherosclerosis is a vascular disease consisting of atheroma plaques. Atheroma plaques are a form of disease formed by fatty bodies, that is, determined by the blood lipid levels called cholesterol. It is a systemic disease popularly known as atherosclerosis. It can affect all veins in the body. However, the vessels it most commonly affects are the heart vessels, that is, the coronary arteries. Then, it continues to the jugular veins of the neck, brain and knee veins, respectively. It usually progresses silently for many years. The disease begins to show symptoms approximately 15-20 years after its onset, which dates back many years. He has many complaints that vary depending on where he is involved. The most common one is atherosclerosis involving the heart vessels. The first symptom is usually chest pain. This chest pain is called angina. It has two shapes, stable and unstable. Generally, patients experience a burning, squeezing and pressing pain in the middle of the chest during light exertion. It is said that the pain disappears when the effort is stopped. This is the first sign of a vascular occlusion. Some patients say that they have pain in their chest even when they are at rest. This is a sign that a very serious vascular occlusion has occurred. In preventing atherosclerosis, it is important to maintain a good weight balance, have a healthy nutrition program, and have sports at the center of life. It is recommended to minimize alcohol consumption by completely avoiding cigarette consumption.
The term hyperlipidemia, popularly known as high cholesterol, refers to a higher level of various fats in the blood than it should be. The most basic type of fat in the blood is cholesterol. Cholesterol is a necessary substance for a healthy life as it is present in all cells of our body and forms the basic building block of hormones. However, cholesterol above a certain level threatens our health. High cholesterol increases the risk of occlusive vascular disease called atherosclerosis in all arteries that feed our body, especially the arteries of our heart. There is no single cause of hyperlipidemia. Many factors contribute to this process together. Genetic factors, slowing of metabolism with advancing age, diet rich in fatty foods, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, lack of exercise, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, hormonal disorders such as diabetes or thyroid diseases can be counted. The primary goal in the treatment of hyperlipidemia is lifestyle change. A healthy diet and regular exercise are recommended for this. In the 2nd stage, medication is used.
EAR NOSE THROAT DISEASES
Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disease of the nasal mucosa that develops after exposure to a sensitized allergen. The average incidence is around 20%. Symptoms may include nasal congestion, itchy eyes, itchy nose and sneezing. Treatment includes preventive measures and medication.
STOMACH AND INTESTINES DISEASES
Reflux literally means backflow. Gastroesophageal reflux is a clinical picture that occurs as a result of gastric acid fluid escaping back into the esophagus. It is observed in approximately 20% of adults in the society. The most common symptoms are burning in the chest and regurgitation, which we call regurgitation. However, it may also cause atypical complaints such as dry cough and hoarseness. Obesity causes an increase in intra-abdominal pressure and facilitates the emergence of reflux symptoms. Caffeinated, carbonated drinks and fatty foods may increase reflux symptoms. Drugs that suppress stomach acid can be used in treatment. In cases resistant to treatment, surgical treatment may be required, although this is not very common.
Peptik ülser, mide ve oniki parmak bağırsağı olarak bilinePeptic ulcer refers to sores that develop in the stomach and duodenum, also known as the duodenum. The most common cause is an infection caused by a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori. In addition, painkillers and cortisone group drugs can also cause peptic ulcers. It can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and bleeding. In gastric ulcers, pain occurs mostly after a meal, while in duodenal ulcers, hunger pain occurs more frequently. If the presence of Helicobacter pylori has been demonstrated in the treatment, acid-inhibiting drugs can be used to treat this infection first and then to suppress symptoms due to stomach acid.n duodenumda gelişen yaraları ifade eder. En sık sorumlu neden Helicobacter pylori denilen bakterinin sebep olduğu enfeksiyondur. Bununla beraber kullanılan ağrı kesiciler, kortizon grubu ilaçlar da peptik ülsere neden olabilir. Karın ağrısı, bulantı, kusma, kanama gibi semptomlara neden olabilir. Mide ülserlerinde daha çok yemekten sonra ağrı oluşurken duodenum ülserinde açlık ağrısı daha sıklıkla oluşur. Tedavide Helicobacter pylori varlığı gösterilmiş ise öncelikle bu infeksiyonun tedavisi daha sonra da mide asidine bağlı semptomların baskılanması için asit inhibisyonu yapan ilaçlardan yararlanılabilir.
NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) are non-steroidal drugs that reduce pain and inflammation. As a side effect, they reduce the amount of prostaglandins, a protective substance in the gastric mucosa, and may cause mild clinical pictures such as heartburn, gastritis or severe clinical pictures such as gastric bleeding. Stomach-related complaints may occur during concomitant use of NSAIDs, especially in elderly people (older than 65 years), people with a history of stomach ulcers, people who use high doses or many painkillers at the same time, or people who use anticoagulants that prevent blood clotting. In these high-risk groups, the risk of these symptoms can be reduced with gastroprotective drugs during NSAID use.
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS
Depression is a condition characterized by emotional, mental, behavioral and physical symptoms. Depression can lead to impairment of bodily functions such as sleep disturbance, changes in appetite and weight, decreased sexual interest and potency. There may be symptoms such as decreased desire and ability to fulfill family, work and social expectations and social roles, suicidal thoughts or attempts, and impaired assessment of reality. Depression is seen in 8-10% of the population. In terms of lifetime risk, one in ten men and one in four or five women will suffer from depression at least once in their lifetime. Depression is currently one of the most disabling diseases in the world. It should be treated without delay. Untreated depression can lead to alcohol and substance abuse problems and other mental illnesses. Prolonged and untreated depression also predisposes to physical illnesses and worsens the course of physical illnesses such as diabetes and heart disease, even increasing the risk of death.
OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER
Obsessive thoughts in which the person's sense of reality is not disturbed and the sense of reality is preserved even though the person knows that it is not true are called obsessions. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a psychological disorder in which irrational thoughts and fears (obsessions) force people to engage in repetitive behaviors. With OCD, you may not realize that your obsessions are irrational and you may try to ignore them or try to let them go. But this will only increase your distress and anxiety. As you try to ignore or get rid of the disturbing thoughts, new thoughts and compulsions follow the previous ones, thus entering an inextricable cycle.Obsessions are generally as follows:Fear of soiling or dirt, sorting and symmetrically arranging things, aggressive or frightening thoughts of harming oneself or others, unwanted thoughts, including sexual or religious ones.Some of the signs and symptoms of obsessions includeFear of contamination when touching things that other people have touched, doubts about whether the door is locked, whether the iron is unplugged, stress when things are not sorted properly.In addition, behaviors such as thoughts of harming oneself or others, fussing with obscene thoughts and inappropriate behaviors, visualizing unpleasant sexual images in the mind can also be signs of this disorder.Obsessive Compulsive Disorder TreatmentTreatment for OCD may not result in a complete cure, but by minimizing symptoms you can prevent the illness from taking control of your daily life. Some people may be treated for life. The 2 main treatments for OCD are psychotherapy and medication.
In the disorder, there may be a constant state of anxiety about panic attacks and the possibility of further panic attacks in the intervals between attacks. The belief that panic attacks can lead to bad consequences such as having a heart attack and dying, losing control and going crazy or having a stroke can lead to constant distress. It is a mental disorder in which some behavioral changes are seen as a precaution against attacks and possible bad consequences (such as not going to work, not doing sports, housework, avoiding certain foods or drinks, carrying medicines, water, alcohol, various foods).
"Just close your eyes for a second and imagine walking into a room and seeing some of your friends and colleagues there, and suddenly you look down and realize that you have no clothes on". This scenario describes very well how people with social phobia feel when they encounter a social situation. "You feel great embarrassment, you want to run out of the room, you feel as if you are going to die, you don't want to see anyone again". Social phobia is an anxiety disorder in which the individual has a marked and persistent fear of being embarrassed or disgraced in social situations where they are concerned that they may be judged by others. People fear situations that require them to interact with others or to perform an action in the presence of others and try to avoid them as much as possible. They think that others will judge them as anxious, weak, crazy or stupid. They may be afraid to speak in public because they are worried that others will notice that their hands or voice are shaking, or they may be overly anxious in conversations with others because they are afraid of appearing to be unable to speak properly. They may avoid eating, drinking or writing in the presence of others for fear that other people will be embarrassed to see their hands shaking.How is social phobia treated?Social phobia is treated with medication and psychotherapy (psychological treatment based on talking). Depending on the patient's condition, sometimes psychotherapy alone and sometimes medication is applied, but generally success is higher when both are applied together. In drug treatment, drugs that are especially effective on the serotonin system are selected. The patient is informed that temporary side effects such as mild nausea, headache, sleep disturbance and stomach upset may occur in the first days of treatment and that the body can get used to these symptoms over time. These medications are not addictive and do not have side effects that cause permanent damage. It takes two to three weeks for the medication to take effect. It takes at least 10 weeks to decide whether the medication is effective or not. The average duration of treatment is 9-12 months.The most common form of therapy for social phobia is cognitive and behavioral therapy. In cognitive therapy, there are stages such as recognizing feelings of anxiety and bodily reactions to this anxiety, understanding what thoughts are in situations that cause anxiety, and developing coping strategies against them. In behavioral therapy, there are methods that can be applied differently for each patient, such as modeling, addressing complaints, role playing to help them perceive symptoms more clearly, relaxation training, social skills training. Family and group therapy can also be applied.
Its main characteristic is sudden and recurring bouts of intense distress or fear that leave people terrified. These episodes, which patients often call "crises", are called panic attacks.A panic attack starts suddenly, gradually intensifies and reaches its most intense level within 10 minutes. It usually lasts for 10-30 minutes (rarely up to 1 hour) and then passes spontaneously.What are the symptoms of a panic attack?- Chest pain or chest tightness,- Palpitations, strong or rapid beating of the heart,- Sweating,- Shortness of breath or choking,- Respiratory arrest- Dizziness, lightheadedness, feeling like falling or fainting- Numbness or tingling,- Chills, shivering or flushing,- Nausea or abdominal pain,- Trembling or jerking,- Feeling that you or others around you have changed, are strange or different,- Fear of losing control or going crazy,- Fear of death.At least 4 or more of these symptoms are present in a panic attack. An attack with fewer than four symptoms is called a limited panic attack.
PREMENSTRUAL DYSPHORIC DISORDER (PMDB)
Premenstrual syndrome is a pattern of physical symptoms such as breast swelling, headache, fatigue and weight gain, and mental symptoms such as depressed mood, irritability and tension during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, which usually resolves with the onset of menstruation. These symptoms occur in 80% of women, but are severe enough to be clinically significant in approximately 5% of women. If these symptoms are clinically or socially significant, they are classified as a psychiatric disorder called premenstrual dysphoric disorder or late luteal phase disorder. Cognitive behavioral interventions and problem solving methods against premenstrual dysphoric disorder help the person to relax. In cognitive interventions, the role of thoughts and interpretations in the emotional reactions of the person is emphasized and a process is carried out to make these intellectual reactions more realistic, appropriate and functional. As a drug treatment, the role of agents used in the treatment of depression is increasing.
Schizophrenia is a mental illness in which significant disturbances in thinking, feeling and behavior are observed, and patients live in their own world by distancing themselves from interpersonal relationships and reality, usually starting in adolescence. It is a disorder in which the person is alienated from the usual ways of perception and interpretation and retreats into a world of self-containment. The lifetime prevalence is 0.5-1% in the general population. Although the male/female ratio is usually equal, it starts at a younger age in men. The illness usually starts between the ages of 15 and 25, but it is also possible for it to start in middle age. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia, depression and suicide, personality traits, disability, cognitive and psychosocial impairment, prolonged and frequent hospitalizations, lack of social support, coping difficulties, economic difficulties, side effects of antipsychotic drugs are the main factors that impair the quality of life in schizophrenia. The stigmatization tendency in society also negatively affects the quality of life of patients with schizophrenia and their relatives.
BIPOLAR DISORDER - MANIC AND DEPRESSIVE EPISODES
Bipolar disorder or bipolar mood disorder, formerly known as manic depression, manic episode or manic depressive disorder. It is a disorder in which a person experiences hypomanic or manic episodes in addition to depressive episodes. The person's mood can alternate between extreme "extremes", from mania, i.e. euphoria or euphoria, to depression, i.e. depression. During a manic episode, the person feels happy or overly sensitive, while during a depressive episode they feel extremely sad and unhappy. The person's mood may be normal between episodes. Mood swings can last for hours, days, weeks or months. Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder affecting 1-2% of the population. Although it can affect anyone at any age, it typically begins in childhood, adolescence or early adulthood.
AUTISM (AUTISTIC SPECTRUM DISORDER)
Autism spectrum disorder is a complex neurodevelopmental difference that is either congenital or emerges in the first years of life. Autism is thought to be caused by certain nervous system problems that affect the structure or functioning of the brain. In this text, the term autism is sometimes used for autism spectrum disorder for ease of use.Today, it is not known what causes autism spectrum disorder, but there is evidence that it is genetically based. However, it is not yet known which gene or genes are responsible. There are views that environmental factors can also cause autism. Much research is being done on the effects of both genetic and environmental factors.Autism has nothing to do with child-rearing characteristics or the economic conditions of the family, which is why autism spectrum disorder is found in all kinds of societies, geographies, races and families;Does not make eye contact with othersif he doesn't look at you when you say his name,If he pretends not to hear what is being said, if he doesn't point his finger at what he wants,If he doesn't know how to play with toys,Does not show interest in games played by peers,He/she says certain words over and over again and in unrelated situations,Lags behind peers in speech,If they have strange movements like swaying, fluttering,If he's overactive, always doing his own thing,If his eyes are stuck on something,If he/she makes unusual movements, such as turning things around, lining things up, etc,If he/she overreacts to changes in the order of his/her daily life,It is necessary to make an assessment in terms of autism. In about fifty percent of children who receive intensive education with early diagnosis and the right education method, the symptoms of autism can be controlled, development can be achieved, great progress can be made and some children with autism may even be no different from their peers by the time they reach adolescence.
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS
Epilepsy, also commonly known as epilepsy, occurs when cells in one area of the brain send abnormal electrical signals for short periods of time. Epilepsy affects about 1% of the world's population. It occurs equally in men and women. Epileptic seizures can occur at any age but often affect the youngest to the oldest people. Epileptic seizures occur suddenly and spread to the whole brain or to a specific part of the brain. Seizure types vary depending on which part of the brain they start in. Most seizures can last from 30 seconds to 2 minutes. Epilepsy can be diagnosed in people who have had at least two seizures.
ALZHEİMER - TYPE DEMENTİA
Alzheimer-type dementia is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by insidious onset of memory loss, concomitant deterioration in function and behavioral disorders. Alzheimer's type dementia occurs in more than two thirds of all dementia patients. It mostly starts at older ages and its prevalence doubles every 5 years over the age of 65. Being a woman, low education level and some genetic characteristics facilitate the onset of Alzheimer's disease. Symptoms include memory problems, difficulty in thinking and reasoning, difficulty in decision-making, difficulty in finding words, difficulty in arithmetic operations, personality and behavioral changes, disappearances, difficulty in performing functions that used to be easy to perform, while the process and stages of Alzheimer's disease can be recognized in three dimensions. In the early, mild stage, it is characterized by forgetfulness, fatigue, inability to remember words, inability to learn new things, impaired social behavior and decision-making. In the middle period, symptoms and problems that prevent the continuation of activities of daily living emerge, disappearances, impaired motor skills, and behavioral problems are observed. In the advanced stage, with the emergence of a period of complete dependence on caregivers, impaired bladder and bowel control, impaired speech or compliance with simple commands, delusions, and loss of awareness are at the forefront. The disease process negatively affects the quality of life of the patient and the caregiver: fear of dirt or dirt, sorting and symmetrically arranging things, aggressive or frightening thoughts of harming oneself or others, unwanted thoughts including sexual or religious issues.Some of the signs and symptoms of obsessions includeFear of contamination when touching things that other people have touched, doubts about whether the door is locked, whether the iron is unplugged, stress when things are not sorted properly.In addition, behaviors such as thoughts of harming oneself or someone else, fussing with obscene thoughts and inappropriate behaviors, visualizing unpleasant sexual images in the mind can also be signs of this disorder.Obsessive Compulsive Disorder TreatmentTreatment for OCD may not result in a complete cure, but by minimizing symptoms you can prevent the illness from taking control of your daily life. Some people may be treated for life. The 2 main treatments for OCD are psychotherapy and medication.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammation, demyelination and axon damage. The disease often occurs in young adults. Its prevalence varies between 2 and 200 per 100,000 depending on geographical characteristics. MS is a chronic disease. As MS affects the brain and spinal cord, it can cause a wide range of neurological symptoms. MS-related complaints may occur during an MS attack and improve later, or some of them may persist for a long time. These symptoms also vary in terms of severity and duration. A person with MS will usually experience one or more symptoms, but not all of these symptoms occur in everyone. Quiet periods (remission) without complaints and symptoms are also seen in the course of the disease. Some of them are characterized by attacks, while others progress at the onset or later on. In MS patients, sensory symptoms such as weakness in the extremities, ataxia, bladder problems, fatigue, visual symptoms such as diplopia, blurred vision, cognitive symptoms such as dysarthria, memory-concentration-attention impairment may be common.
CHRONIC HEPATITIS B
Chronic hepatitis B is a lifelong disease that causes severe liver disease. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus that causes a range of liver diseases from acute hepatitis (including failure due to fulminant hepatitis) to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer). The natural history of the disease is complex and can start as an acute illness and develop into a chronic condition over time. Acute hepatitis B can last from a few weeks to several months and the person may eventually recover. HBV is transmitted perinally, percutaneously, sexually, through open wounds, cuts and close personal contact. It is estimated that 2 billion people in the world (1 in 3 people) are affected by HBV infection, 250 million people are chronically infected with HBV, and an estimated 700 thousand people die annually due to hepatitis B and its complications. To protect against hepatitis B infection, vaccination programs should be implemented at the time of birth, existing patients should be identified and priority measures should be taken to protect risk groups from the disease.
Thalassemia is the most common and preventable inherited blood disorder in the world and in our country. It is also called Mediterranean anemia because of its high prevalence in countries around the Mediterranean. Depending on whether the genes in the mother and father are diseased or not; various types of thalassemia are seen in the individual. People with carrier (minor) thalassemia are completely healthy and have no problems other than mild anemia. In the mild disease (intermedia) type, symptoms appear. They start later and are milder than those of the major type. In the severe (major) type, the symptoms of anemia usually begin after the third month of life and require constant blood transfusions. These children cannot make enough hemoglobin (blood levels) for themselves. The main symptoms of the disease are weakness, pallor, loss of appetite, restlessness, enlarged liver and spleen, growth retardation and abnormalities especially in the bones of the face and head. Thalassemia is a preventable disease. Every new thalassemia patient is born to carrier parents. For this reason, screening and prevention programs are implemented in Turkey.
CHRONIC IRON OVERLOAD
Iron overload (hemochromatosis) is a disease in which too much iron accumulates in the body. Too much iron is toxic to the body. Iron can accumulate in many organs, especially in the liver and heart. Too much iron in the liver can lead to enlargement of the liver, liver failure, liver cancer or cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is a serious disease that prevents the liver from working. Too much iron in the heart can cause arrhythmia, an irregular heartbeat, and heart failure. In the pancreas, excessive iron accumulation can cause diabetes. There are two types of hemochromatosis: primary and secondary. In most patients with primary hemochromatosis, the disorder is genetically inherited from their parents. Secondary hemochromatosis, on the other hand, usually develops due to a disease that causes iron overload, such as thalassemia, or certain conditions such as prolonged blood transfusions. The aim of treatment in the disease is to reduce the amount of iron in the body to normal levels, prevent or delay organ damage due to iron accumulation, treat disease complications and help maintain normal levels of iron in the body. Treatment may involve blood sampling from the body (therapeutic filebotomy). Iron chelation therapy is used to remove excess iron from your body. Since its discovery, iron chelation therapy has helped to prolong life in major blood disorders such as thalassemia, where iron overload is common.
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